GEOG 482 Final Exam Answers

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GEOG 482 Final Exam Answers

 

Question 1

10 pts

One distinguishing characteristic of geographic data is that phenomena like terrain elevation,
soil type, and even property value tend to be similar among neighboring locations. This property
allows us to estimate unknown attribute values from nearby known values. What is the property
called? (10 pts)

Scale independence
Spatial dependence
Spectral reflectance
Sheer coincidence

Question 2

10 pts

One of the following statements is true. Which is it? (10 pts)

The most accurate coordinates take into account the Earth’s complex shape.
Angles and distances calculated using plane coordinates are more accurate than
angles and distances calculated with geographic coordinates.
Geographic coordinates are more precise than plane coordinates.

The only distortion-free way to transform geographic coordinates into plane
coordinates involves a set of mathematical formulae called map projections.

Question 3

5 pts

Referring to the map above, choose the city located at -58.5° (longitude), -34.67° (latitude).
(5 pts)

Buenos Aires, Argentina
Cape Town, South Africa
Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico
Tokyo, Japan

Question 4

5 pts

Referring to the same map as in the preceding question, choose the city located at 18.47°
(longitude), -33.93° (latitude). (5 pts)

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Cape Town, South Africa
Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico
Tokyo, Japan

Question 5

10 pts

We studied three coordinate systems in this course: geographic coordinates, UTM coordinates,
and State Plane coordinates. Which, if any, of the three coordinate systems involve map
projections? (10 pts)

All three coordinate systems involve map projections.
The UTM and State Plane coordinate systems involve map projections.
The UTM coordinate system involves a map projection; specifically, the Universal
Transverse Mercator projection.
None of the coordinate systems involves map projections.

Question 6

10 pts

The central meridian of UTM zone 31 is 3° E. The position of Greenwich, England in
geographic coordinates is 0° E, 51° 29′ North. What is the position of Greenwich in UTM
coordinates, relative to zone 31? (You should be able to identify the correct answer by
eliminating those that are obviously incorrect.) (10 pts)

291,707 m E, 5,707,844 m N
-291,707 m E, 5,707,844 m N
0 m E, 5,707,844 m N
0 m E, 0 m N

Question 7

10 pts

You have scanned an unrectified aerial photograph from the 1940s that you wish to georegister
with an existing parcel database for an analysis of land use change. The parcel database is
encoded as State Plane Coordinates based upon a Lambert projection and the NAD 83 datum.
What needs to be done to the scanned air photo? (10 pts)

All three of the following
Datum transformation
Map projection
Plane coordinate transformation

Question 8

10 pts

How does the Census Bureau produce data about the population, housing, and economy of the
U.S.?

By counting up responses to questionnaires sent to every household.
By estimation from responses to questionnaires sent to a sample of households.
By a combination of counts and estimates from samples.
By a statistical model that extrapolates from previous censuses.

Question 9

10 pts

The data file attached to this link (http://www.eeducation.psu.edu/courses/geog482/graphics/europe_pop_density.txt) (opens in a separate

window) lists historical population densities (persons per square kilometer) for 31 European
countries. What is the level of measurement of these data?

Nominal
Ordinal
Interval

Ratio
Question 10

10 pts

Which type of thematic map do cartographers recommend to map data such as total
population by country Follow this link (http://www.eeducation.psu.edu/courses/geog482/graphics/europe_pop.txt) to see example data in a

separate window. (Choose all correct answers.)

Dot density
Proportional Symbol
Choropleth (Graduated Color)
Isoline (contour)

Question 11

10 pts

You plan to create a choropleth map that will show European population density by country.
Follow this link (http://www.eeducation.psu.edu/courses/geog482/graphics/europe_pop_density.xls) to see the data in an

Excel spreasheet. Classify the data into four quartiles. In which quartile does Austria
appear?

Highest
Upper middle
Lower middle
Lowest

Question 12

10 pts

The Census Bureau has just received a completed questionnaire from a household at 1732
Oak Avenue. The MAF/TIGER database includes a vector feature that represents the 1700block of Oak Avenue. The feature is encoded with the following address ranges: Left: 17011799; Right: 1700-1798. Using the diagram above, a visual represenation of the TIGER/Line
Shapefil extract, address geocode 1732 Oak Avenue.

A
B
C
D

Question 13

5 pts

Choose the term that denotes a topological relationship between two faces (polygons) that
share bounding edges (lines).

Adjacency
Allocation
Connectivity
Routing

Question 14

5 pts

Choose the term that denotes a procedure that partitions a network into areas that satisfy
one or more criteria.

Adjacency
Allocation
Connectivity
Routing
Question 15

5 pts

Choose the term that exemplifies the aspect of data quality described in the following
statement: "Ninety percent of well-defined points tested are located within 0.02 inches (map
distance) of their actual locations."

Accuracy
Precision
Resolution
Validity
Question 16

5 pts

Choose the term that exemplifies the aspect of data quality described in the following
statement: "UTM coordinates specified to two decimal places (e.g., 500,000.00 E, 5,000,000.00
N) denote a smaller area on the ground that UTM coordinates taken to only one decimal place
(e.g., 500,000.0 E, 5,000,000.0 N)."

Accuracy
Precision
Resolution
Validity

Question 17

10 pts

Imagine yourself as a land surveyor (if you are not one already!). You need a base map on
which to plot measurements your crew has produced with your total station. You select a map
that preserves which property of the globe? (Note that one answer earns full credit, while one
other earns partial credit.)

Equivalence of area
Conformality
Equidistance
Azimuthality

Question 18

10 pts

A surveyor needs to determine the plane coordinates of point P. She begins by measuring the
bearing from a control point, A, to an intermediate point B. Then she measures the distance AB.
Given the known coordinates of the control point A, and the bearing and distance
measurements, she can calculate the coordinates of point B. Next, she measures the bearing
from point B to point P, and measures the distance BP. Finally, she calculates the coordinates of
point P. Which positioning method has the surveyor used? It may help to draw a sketch to
visualize the problem.

Closed traverse
Open traverse
Triangulation
Trilateration

Question 19

10 pts

How does the Global Positioning System work?

GPS receivers calculate their positions relative to the locations of three or more
nearby cell phone towers.

GPS satellites broadcast radio signals. GPS receivers calculate positions as a
function of the difference in time between the radio broadcast and the receipt of the
broadcast signal by the receiver.
GPS receivers send signals to satellites; satellites reply with receiver’s position.
GPS receivers transmit radar signals into space that are reflected back to Earth by
satellites. Receivers calculate positions as a function of the difference in time
between the original radar pulse and the echo.

Question 20

10 pts

What is differential correction?

A way to improve the accuracy of GPS positioning by averaging many readings
recorded at a single location.
A method for improving the accuracy of positions recorded by a mobile GPS
receiver by filtering out errors recorded by a second stationary receiver.
A method surveyors use to calculate elevation by comparing the difference between
the height of a leveling instrument above one point with its relative height above
another point.

Question 21

10 pts

Compare two sources of topographic data: orthoimagery, and 3-D images produced by
stereoscopic viewing of overlapping vertical aerial photos.

Orthoimages are good for measuring horizontal positions, but both horizontal
positions and elevations can be measured from stereo images.
Only horizontal positions can be measured on orthoimages. Only elevations can be
measured on stereo images. Stereoscopic images are best for vertical positions.
Orthoimagery and stereo imagery are equally good sources for topographic data.
Unlike vertical air photos, scale is consistent on orthoimages. Therefore, only
orthoimages should be used to compile topographic data.
Question 22

10 pts

What causes scale to vary throughout most vertical aerial photographs?

Aircraft altitudes vary due to turbulence.
Aircraft velocities vary due to poor quality cruise control.
Variations in terrain elevation.
Photo scale decreases with distance from the point directly below the camera lens.

Question 23

10 pts

What explains the fact that "core data" (a.k.a. "framework themes") in the U.S. are "incomplete
and fragmentary" in comparison with other developed countries (e.g., Britain, Australia, and the
Netherlands)?

Differences in national geographic information strategies. Countries with the most
progressive policies tend to have the most complete data infrastructures.
Differences in the size of countries. Larger countries tend to be less completely
mapped.
Differences in the levels of government that are responsible for mapping and land
title registration.
Differences in the affluence of countries. Developed countries tend to be more
completely mapped than developing countries.

Question 24

10 pts

The shapes of features (e.g., coastlines, rivers, boundaries, etc.) are generalized the most in
which of the following vector databases?

1:24,000 Digital Line Graphs

1:2,000,000 Digital Line Graphs
DLGs files are scale-independent digital databases. Features are not generalized.

Question 25

10 pts

The image above depicts one triangle facet that is part of a TIN. The three vertices of the
triangle are measured spot elevations. The red tick marks represent intermediate elevations at
a constant contour interval. The positions of the red tick marks along the facet edges are:

determined based on the assumption of spatial dependence.
determined by equal interval interpolation.
the product of dividing the rise by the run.
interpolated with a neighborhood algorithm.
Question 26

10 pts

What is the maximum horizontal error (ground distance) permitted under National Map
Accuracy Standards for 15-minute, 1:62,500-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps?

1000 inches
1250 inches
1500 inches

1750 inches
2000 inches

Question 27

10 pts

Which of the following is an example of interpolation?

Draw lines between spot elevations such that every elevation point forms the vertex
of a triangle.
Draw lines that connect all points with equal elevation values.
Estimate elevation values for each cell in a grid from nearby spot elevations.
Assign each pixel a color that represents the elevation of the terrain at that point.

Question 28

10 pts

Which of the following is the best description of a USGS Digital Elevation Model?

A vector data file containing contour lines digitized from USGS topographic maps.
A raster data file containing a regularly spaced grid of terrain elevations.
A three dimensional image of the terrain surface produced by GIS software.
A three dimensional image of the terrain surface produced by stereoscopic viewing
of aerial photographs.
Question 29

10 pts

What does the red color signify in the image above?

Red represents reflectance values in the near-infrared band, which vegetation
reflects strongly.
Red represents reflectance values in the visible green band, which vegetation
reflects strongly.
Red represents reflectance values in the visible red band, which vegetation absorbs
strongly.
Red represents areas engulfed in an extensive brush fire.

Question 30
What is a spectral response pattern?

The range of wavelengths that a sensing system is able to detect.
The magnitudes of energy that an object reflects or emits across a range of
wavelengths.
The ability of a sensor to detect small differences in wavelength.
The ability of a sensor to detect small differences in energy magnitude.

10 pts

Question 31

10 pts

What is the key advantage of multispectral remote sensing over panchromatic imaging?

Objects that are indistinguishable in a panchromatic image may be easy to tell
apart at other wavelengths.
Objects that are too small to be detected in panchromatic imagery can be discerned
in more detailed multispectral imagery.
Multispectral imagery can be processed and analyzed digitally. Panchromatic
images are just photographs.
Multispectral imagery has greater temporal resolution than panchromatic imagery.

Question 32

10 pts

A county government has decided to distribute maintenance of the various "layers" of its
geographic information systems data to the agencies who use the data. For example, the
county commissioners have asked the Department of Roads to maintain roads data, the Tax
Assessor’s Office to maintain property boundaries data, the Public Works Department to
maintain sewer lines data, and the Planning Office to maintain land use zoning districts. What
must be done to make sure that the separate data layers can be accurately combined in
a single map?

 

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